Recent research into social and cultural facets of Nazism have widened our knowledge of the relation between the German population and the regime. The concept of “national community” (Volksgemeinschaft) has particularly stimulated new studies on the mechanisms of social inclusion and exclusion. However, using a highly ideological contemporary term as an analytical tool has also been called into question. In this workshop, we will discuss the methodological pros and cons of recent conceptualizations like this. Based on scholarly articles as well as textual and visual documents, we will be concerned, for instance, with social militarization, race and gender, and the experiences of violence. It is our aim to present and assess recent research in order to better understand the interrelation of historical writing and our knowledge of Nazism, a regime driven by the desire for racial purity and war.