Emmanuel Schieber, Le Retour a Sion de l'idealisme au pragmatisme, de Juda Ha-Hassid au Gaon de Vilna et ses disciples, Paris-Geneve, 2020 Editions Honore Champion
מחקר חדשני אודות תנועות העלייה ממזרח אירופה מ 1700 עד 1860 ועל השפעתן על פיתוח הישוב הן מבחינה מדינית, כלכלית וביחס בין הקהילות היהודיות בחו"ל לארץ .
Since their expulsion from the Holy Land after the destruction of the Second Temple (70 C.E.), the Jews did not cease to hope to return. Over the centuries, immigration movements (Aliyot) grew, often motivated by millennia aspirations. The most notable are those of the Tossafists of France and England during the 13th century, and later, the Jews of Spain who immigrated to the Holy Land after the expulsion of 1492. In 1700, Rabbi Judah ha-Hasid (1660-1700) organized a collective Aliyah from Eastern Europe to Jerusalem. Later, from 1760, several Aliyah movements emerged such as the immigration of the disciples of Rabbi Israel Baal Shem Tov (1690-1760), known as the Hasidim, and of the disciples of Rabbi Eliahu, the Vilna Gaon (1720-1797), known as the Perushim.
The first part of this study analyzes the motivations of these movements, and highlights the redemptive doctrine of the Vilna Gaon through original research on his biography and his innovative works.
In its second part, the study analyzes how the Gaon's disciples put the teachings of their master into practice in the Holy land. To grasp the significance of their actions, it is necessary to understand the geopolitical context of the Ottoman Empire and Palestine from the early 19th century, and the particularity of the "Capitulations" governing the status of foreigners. This study shows how the Perushim knew how to act effectively and very innovatively concerning the major challenges which the Yishuv, the Jewish settlement, faced. Among the areas of activity in which the disciples of the Gaon involved themselves were the relations with the ottoman local government and with representatives of the Powers, economic development and the creation of a unique educational system.